According to the “Return” Directive, detention should be an exceptional measure, allowed only when other less coercive measures cannot be applied to carry out a deportation.
However, in practice, several Member States make systematic use of detention, even though it is clearly defined as a measure of “last resort” in national law and even though national law gives priority to economic sanctions rather than detention (e.g. Spain).
The map shows the maximum period of detention in each Member state, as well as the evolution of the maximum period of detention between December 2010  and 2013.
 Date that the « return directive » had to be transposed by all Member states, except the United Kingdom and Ireland.
- 2014-map-booklet-max periods of detention (pdf - 266 kB )
- 2014-original map-Olivier Clochard-maximum periods of detention (pdf - 764 kB )
InformationsDate(s) of publication: 2014
Credits: The hidden face of immigration detention camps in Europe, Olivier Clochard
- Hotspots at the heart of the archipelago of camps
- Five years to reach Hamburg from Kaboul
- Detainees and detention centers in the United Kingdom: overcapacity and inhuman living conditions
- The Balkan buffer-zone
- Externalisation of the European migration policy into the Balkans: when delegating makes imprisonment easier
"voluntary" return arbitrary detention Atlas Australia Austria Balkans Belarus Belgium C(h)amp d'expression camps in Europe Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark deportation Encampment map Estonia Europe European union Finland France Germany Great Britain Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania London Luxembourg Malta Moldova Morocco Netherlands Poland Portugal Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland The hidden face of immigration detention camps in Europe Ukraine United Kingdom United states